Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Meatless Future or Vegan Delusions? The Beyond Meat Valuation

In a big year for initial public offerings (IPOs), with Uber, Lyft, Pinterest and Zoom, to name just a few, already having gone public and more companies waiting in the wings, it is ironic that it is not a tech company, but a food company, Beyond Meat, that has managed to deliver the most dazzling post-IPO performance of any of the listings. As the stock increased seven-fold, investors who were able to get into the stock at the offering price have been enriched, but those who jumped on the bandwagon later have also reaped extraordinary returns. The speed and magnitude of the stock price rise has left many wondering whether investors have over reached and whether a correction is around the corner. 

The Meatless Meat Company!
The Company: Let's take a look at what Beyond Meat's products are and the market opening it is exploiting, before diving into a story and valuation for the company. The company, headquartered in Southern California, and founded in 2009, makes makes plant-based (pea protein) products that mimic burgers and ground meat  in taste, texture and aroma. In the prospectus that it filed leading up to its IPO, the company argues that its production process is revolutionary and new, and is responsible for its capacity to replicate animal-based meats. 

The Competitors: While Beyond Meat is a leader right now in the specialized sub-category of meatless meats, it faces a formidable competitor in Impossible Foods, another young start-up producing its own plant-based versions of meat-like products. Since it is very likely, especially after Beyond Meat's explosive market debut, that Impossible Foods will be going public soon, it is inevitable that there will be comparisons between the two companies. While I have done my own taste test, taste is in the mouth of the beholder, and this article perhaps has the most even-handed comparison of the two companies' products. Both companies have also adopted similar strategies of enlisting fast-food companies as product adopters, with Impossible Foods showing up on Burger King (Impossible Whopper) and White Castle menus, and Beyond Meat countering with TGI Friday's, Carl's Jr. and Red Robin. Other companies are taking note, including companies like Amy's Kitchen, a long standing producer of organic and vegan offerings, and companies like Tyson Foods and Perdue that derive the bulk of their revenues from meat, but see opportunity in this new market.

The Drivers: Both Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods have been helped by a shift away from meat to meatless alternatives, and that trend has been driven by three factors:
  1. Health: While the research on the health consequences of eating meat continues, it has become part of conventional wisdom that meat-based diets (and red meat in particular) are associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This link provides a fairly balanced account of whether this belief is true, but for better or worse, it has led some meat eaters to cut back and sometimes stop consuming meat. 
  2. Environment: As climate change and environmental concerns rise to the top of concerns for some, they are feeling the pressure to shift away from meat, in general, and beef, in particular, because of its environmental footprint. I am not  an environmental scold, but I don't think that there is any debate that meat-based diets puts a greater pressure on the environment 
  3. Taste: Until recently, shifting away from a meat-based diet also meant giving up the taste and texture of meat, since most meat substitutes did not come close. As companies like Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods are showing, plant-based alternatives are getting better at mimicking real meat, and for those who are attached to the texture and taste of meat, that is making a difference in their diet decisions.
None of these three factors are likely to fade away. In fact, I think that we can safely assume that they will only get stronger over time, accelerating the shift from meat to meatless alternatives. 

Market Sizing
All of the talk about the shift to vegan and vegetarian diets can sometimes obscure two basic facts about this market and its underlying trends:
  1. The meatless meat market is still small, relative to the overall meat market: In 2018, the meatless meat market had sales of $1-$5 billion, depending on how broadly you define meatless markets and the geographies that you look at. Defined as meatless meats, i.e., the products that Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods offer, it is closer to the lower end of the range, but inclusive of other meat alternatives (tofu, tempeh etc.) is at the upper end. No matter which end of the range you go with, it is small relative to the overall meat market that is in excess of $250 billion, just in the US, and closer to a trillion, if you expand it globally, in 2018. In fact, while the meat market has seen slow growth in the US and Europe, with a shift from beef to chicken, the global meat market has been growing, as increasing affluence in Asia, in general, and China, in particular, has increased meat consumption,  Depending on your perspective on Beyond Meats, that can be bad news or good news, since it can be taken by detractors as a sign that the overall market for meatless meats is not very big and by optimists that there is plenty of room to grow.
  2. It is still a niche market: Meatless meat products have made their deepest inroads in urban and affluent populations and its allure is greatest with former meat-eaters rather than lifelong vegetarians, who don't crave either the taste or texture of meat. The plus is that this market has significant buying power, but the minus is that urban, well-to-do millennials can eat only so much. 
The big question that we face is in estimating how much the shift towards vegan and vegetarian diets will continue, driven by health reasons or environmental concern (or guilt). There is also a question of whether some governments may accelerate the shift away from meat-based diets, with policies and subsidies. Given this uncertainty, it is not surprising that the forecasts for the size of the meatless meat market vary widely across forecasters. While they all agree that the market will grow, they disagree about the end number, with forecasts for 2023 ranging from $5 billion at the low end to $8 billion at the other extreme. Beyond Meat, in its prospectus, uses the expansion of non-dairy milk(soy, flax, almond mild) in the milk market as its basis, to estimate the market for meatless meat to be $35 billion in the long term. 

Beyond Meat: Story and Valuation
History: At the time of its public offering, Beyond Meat had all of the characteristics of a young company, not much separated from its start up days, with revenues of $87.9 million, operating losses of $26.5 million and a common equity of -$121.8 million. Its first earnings report, delivered to a rapturous market response, reported a tripling of revenues and a narrowing of operating losses, but even with it incorporated, the company remains a small, money losing company.

The Story: To value young companies, I first have to put my optimist hat on, and with it firmly in place, my story for Beyond Meat is that it is catching the front end of a significant shift towards vegan and vegetarian-based diets. The key parts of my story are below:
  1. Total market for meatless meats will grow significantly: I see the total market for meatless meats growing from just over $1 billion in 2018 to $12 billion by 2028. While that is less than the $35 billion that Beyond Meat's back-of-the-envelope estimate delivers, it is closer to the upper end of the range of forecasts that you have for this market.
  2. With Beyond Meat capturing a significant market share: As the market grows, the number of players will increase, but I see Beyond Meats capturing a 25% market share of this market, building on its early entry into the market and brand name recognition, partly from its fast food connections.
  3. While delivering operating profits similar to the large US food processing companies: Over the next five years, I see pre-tax operating margins improving towards the 13.22% that US food processing business delivered in 2018, built largely on economies of scale and pricing power. 
  4. And reinvesting a lot less, in delivering that growth: While Beyond Meat generates about a dollar in revenue per dollar in invested capital right now, I will assume that it will be able to use technology as its ally to invest more efficiently in the future. Specifically, I will assume that the company will generate $3 in revenue for every dollar in invested capital, about double what the typical US food processing company is able to generate.
Is there risk in this investment? Absolutely, and you may be surprised that my cost of capital is only 7.46%, but that reflects my assessment of risk in this investment, as a going concern and as part of a diversified portfolio. As a money-losing company that will require about $500 million in capital over the next four years to deliver on its potential, there remains a significant chance of failure, and I estimate the probability of failure to be 15%.

The Valuation: With the story in place, the valuation follows and the picture below captures the ingredients of value:
Download spreadsheet
With my story, which I believe reflects an upbeat story for the company, the value that I obtain for its equity is $3.3 billion, yielding a value per share of about $47. At the end of June 10, when I completed my valuation, the stock price was close to $170, well above my estimated  value. What the stock dropped almost $41 on June 11 to $127/share, it still remained over valued.

What if? As with any young company, the value of Beyond Meat is driven almost entirely by the story you tell about the company, and in this case, that story revolves around two key inputs. The first is the revenue that you believe the company can generate, once mature, and that reflects how big you think the market for meatless meats will get and Beyond Meat's market share of the market. The second   is its profitability at that point, which is a function of how much pricing power you believe the company will have. While I have assumed that Beyond Meat will deliver about $3 billion in revenues in 2028, with an operating  margin of 13.22%, your story for the company can lead you to very different estimates for one or both numbers:
The shaded cells represent break even points, where you could justify buying Beyond Meat at the price ($127) it was trading at on June 11, 2019. Put differently, if your story for the meatless meat market and Beyond Meat's place in it leads you to revenues of $5 billion or higher with an operating margin of 20%, you should be a value investor in the company. 

Macro Bets and Micro Value
As you can see from the what-if analysis on Beyond Meat's value, the value that you obtain for Beyond Meat is determined mostly by how large you believe that market for meatless meats will end up being. In fact, there are some investors whose primary reason for investing in Beyond Meat is as a bet on a macro trend towards vegan and vegetarian diets. That said, it is worth remembering that investors don't get pay offs from making the right macro bets, but from the micro vehicles (individual investments) that they use as proxies for those bets. To get the pay off from a correct macro call, there are two additional assessments that investors have to make:
  1. Industry structure: A growing market may not translate into high value businesses, if it is crowded and intensely competitive. That market will deliver high revenue growth, but with low or no profitability, and no pathway to sustainable profits and value added. In contrast, a growing market where there are significant barriers to entry and a few big winners can result in high-value companies with large market share and unscalable moats. 
  2. Winners and Losers: Assuming that there is potential for value creation in a market, investors have to pick the companies that are most likely to win in that market. That is difficult to do, when you are looking at young companies in a young market, but there is no way around making that judgment. In a post from 2015, I argued that in big (or potentially big) markets, you can expect companies to be collectively over valued early in the game. 
In my Beyond Meat valuation, I have implicitly made assumptions about both these components, by first allowing operating margins to converge on those of large food processing companies and then making Beyond Meat one of the winners in the meatless meat market, by giving it a 25% market share. My defense of these assumptions is simple. I believe that the meatless meat market will evolve like the broader food business, with a few big players dominating, with similar competitive advantages including brand name, economies of scale and access to distribution systems. I also believe that Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods, as front runners in this market, will use their access to capital to scale up quickly. Their use of fast food chains feeds into this strategy, with bulk sales increasing revenues quickly, allowing for economies of scale, and name-brand offerings (Impossible Whopper at Burger Kind, Beyond Famous Star burger at Carl's Jr.) helping improve brand name recognition. I will undoubtedly have to revisit these assumptions as the market evolves and some of you may disagree with me strongly on one or both assumptions. If so, please do download the spreadsheet and make your best judgments to derive your value for the company.

A Trading Play
Early in a company's life, it is the pricing game that dominates and it is futile to use fundamentals to try to explain a stock price or day-to-day changes. This table, from one of my presentations on corporate life cycles, illustrates how investors and trades view companies as they move through the life cycle.

For a young company like Beyond Meat, making the transition from start-up to young growth, it is all pricing all the time, with stories about market size driving the pricing,. This trading phenomenon is exacerbated by the fact that it is one of the few pure plays on a macro trend, i.e., a shift in diets away from meat to plant-based options. That leads me to two conclusions. The first is an unexceptional one and it is that you will see wide swings in the stock price on a day to day basis, for little or no reason. That is a feature of priced stocks, not a bug, as mood and momentum shift for no perceptible reasons. The second is that selling short on a stock like this one (small, with a small float) is a dangerous game, since you are unlikely to have time as your ally, and while you may be right in the long term, you may bankrupt yourself before you are vindicated. 

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Past Posts

Monday, June 3, 2019

Tesla's Travails: Curfew for a Corporate Teenager?

It should come as no surprise to anyone that Tesla is back in the news, though it seems to be for all of the wrong reasons. From Musk's Twitter escapades with the SEC, to talk about electric lawn blowers to concerns about a debt death spiral, the company has managed, yet again, to get in its own way, and this time, it has paid a price in the market, as its stock price tests lows not seen in a couple of years. I would be lying if I said that I do not find the company fascinating, and as has been my pattern for the last six years, it is time for a Tesla valuation update.

Looking Back: My Tesla Posts in 2018
In my last valuation of Tesla, set in June 2018, I considered possible, plausible and probable valuations for the company. In my story, which I admitted was an optimistic one, I mapped out a pathway for the company to deliver $100 billion in revenues in 2028, while pushing pre-tax operating margins to 10% by 2023.  The value that I obtained for the stock was $170-$180 per share, depending on how the very generous option package (20.2 million options) granted to Musk were treated, and is in the picture below:
In that post, I also listed possible, perhaps even plausible, scenarios where Tesla's value per share could be higher than $400/share, but argued that it would require the equivalent of a royal flush for the company to get there, a combination of a ten-fold increase in revenues, an operating margin of 12% and reinvesting more like a technology than an automotive company. Since the stock was trading at close $360 at the time of the valuation, I concluded that it was significantly over valued. True to form, Elon Musk roiled the waters in August 2018 with his now infamous tweet about funding being secured for a $420 buyout of the stock, causing a surge in the stock price, before questions arose about both how secured the funding actually was and whether the $420 price itself was fiction. In my post on the topic, I argued that if you were a private equity investor interested in taking a company private, Tesla would be a poor target, given its need for capital to keep growing, its heavy debt burden and the presence of Elon Musk as CEO. In the months after, both Musk and Tesla paid hefty prices for the indiscreet tweet, with the former in the SEC crosshairs for alleged stock price manipulation and the latter having to fight through the fog to get its story heard.

Catching up with the news
If you are wondering how much can happen in a year, you obviously don't follow Tesla, since the company is a magnet for newsworthy events. Borrowing a movie title to categorize what's happened to the company in the last year, I would break the news down into the good, the bad and what I can only term as gobsmacking, where you whack your head and say "what the heck was that?"

1. The Good
The market momentum has clearly shifted against Tesla, and all the news about the company seems to skew "bad", it is worth noting that there are good things that have happened at the company over the last year:
  1. Revenue Surge: In the drama around production targets and logistical misses, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that the Tesla 3 has caused the company to almost double revenues over the course of the last year, while easily winning the race for best selling electric car in the world. 
  2. Improving Profitability: While Musk's tweets about Tesla turning earnings positive may have been premature, the company has moved down the pathway to profitability, reducing operating losses and with R&D capitalized, perhaps even turning the corner on operating profitability. 
In short, the operating base on which I will be building my Tesla valuation in June 2019 will be a more solid one than the one that I was using in 2018.

2. The Bad
With Tesla, good news is always bundled with bad, some of it caused by macro events but much of it the consequence of self inflicted wounds:
  1. Debt load and Distress: When Tesla chose to add to its debt burden by borrowing $5 billion in 2017, I argued that there was no good reason for Tesla to borrow money, since money losing companies gain no tax benefits and debt put growth potential at risk. Tesla has since added to that debt, using the false logic that it needed to borrow money to fund its growth; a much better option would have been to raise equity, the dilution bogeyman notwithstanding. In June 2019, that debt, now close to  $14 billion, is revealing its dark side, as a bond price plunge and ratings downgrades threaten to put Tesla's growth story at risk.
  2. Reinvestment Lags: Growth requires reinvestment, and especially so for automobile companies, where assembly lines and logistical infrastructure need to be put in place for cars to be delivered to customers. It is both frustrating and puzzling that Tesla, a company with a loyal customer base that is willing to wait, has been unwilling to make the investments that it needs to meet the demand. Instead, the company seems to lurch from one production crisis to another one (remember the tents that had to be put up to reach the 5,000 cars/week target) while its CEO muddies the water further by arguing that the company is not just earnings positive but cash flow positive. At the moment, the Fremont plant remains Tesla's major production facility, and while a plant in China is supposedly set for production late in 2019, the US/China trade war and Tesla's own tangled history on operating delays leads to skepticism.
It is also worth noting that a significant part of Tesla's time has been spent extracting itself from another unforced error, its acquisition of Solar City in 2016, with cost cuts and employee layoffs that are incongruent with a company claiming to tell a great growth story.

3. The Gobsmacking
An investor in Tesla should earn a special premium for having to endure news stories about the company that are so unusual that they would be considered fiction at other companies. Just to give a sampling, here are the other items that added to the smoke around the stock:
  1. SEC Oversight: If there has been a recurring story over the past year, it has to do with the aftermath of Elon Musk's "funding secured" tweet, which led to a SEC investigation and a threat of sanctions on the company. While the company came to a settlement wit the SEC, that settlement requires restraint on the part of Musk on future disclosures to the market (especially in the form on tweets), and restrain is not a Musk strong point.
  2. Autonomous Cars: In April 2019, Musk unveiled a plan to roll out autonomous taxis, with Tesla owners being allowed to add to the network, in the near future, with the promise that Tesla's technology on auto driving was well ahead of the competition. There is a debate worth having about autonomous cars and how they will change the ride sharing business, but it is almost certain that this will not happen smoothly or soon.
  3. The Rest: This being Tesla, there were the weekly distractions as Musk muddied the waters with talk of electric leaf blowers and insurance products. 

An Updated Tesla Valuation
For the bulk of its existence, Tesla has been a story stock. That remains true, but as the company ages and acquires substance, you can argue that the story is getting more bounded. In this section, I will update my Tesla story and valuation first, then look at the uncertainty around the valuation and close with a comment on a "valuation" by ARK Invest, one of Tesla's biggest institutional cheerleaders.

1. The Story: Tesla, Corporate Teenager?
Bringing together everything that has happened at Tesla over the last year, I find myself telling the same story that I told about Tesla a year ago, of a company that would find a pathway to revenues of $100 billion in 2028, with strong operating margins, remains intact, with one notable change. The company's debt overhang, already a concern a year ago, has become a clear and present danger to the company. In effect, on an operating basis, the company is in better shape than it was a year ago but on a financial leverage basis, it faces more truncation risk (a chance of failure of 20%). The value per share that I get with both effects built in is about $190/share:
Download spreadsheet
If there is a modification to my story, it would be this. As I watched Musk repeatedly put Tesla's story and value at risk with his distractions, I was reminded of teenagers around the world, with immense potential and intelligence, who risk it all for momentary and often meaningless rushes. In fact, I am tempted to add a corporate teenage phase in my corporate life cycle framework and put Tesla in it, a corporate teenager with immense potential, who repeated puts it all at risk for distractions. 

To provide perspective on why the value per share today is higher, even with a much greater chance of failure, I compared the numbers that I used in my valuation in June 2018 to June 2019:

Note that while my end game on revenues ($100 billion by 2028) and operating margins (10% in 5 years) has not changed, the base numbers make both easier reaches. The rise in failure risk (from 5% in 2018 to 20% in 2019) is at least partially offset by a lower risk free rate and a cost of capital. In truth, the value per share is close enough that I would argue that there really has been little change, but the price per share has dropped by almost 50%, making the stock go from being significantly over valued to close to fairly valued now.

2.  Facing up to Uncertainty
As with every Tesla valuation that I have done over the last six years, this one comes with caveats and uncertainties, and the contrasting views that bulls and bears have about the company are captured in the table below:
As you can see, I borrow from both sides of this debate, and I am sure that Tesla bulls will be disappointed that I don't have higher revenues for the company and Tesla bears will take issue with my reinvestment assumptions and expectations that the company will eventually deliver solid margins. Using a technique that I find useful, when confronted with divergent views, to deal with uncertainties, I computed Tesla's values in a simulation, with the results below:

in summary, the median value across the 100,000 simulations is $180/share, the 10th percentile delivering a $52 value/share and the 90th yielding $380/share. In this simulation, I have assumed that Tesla will remain a stand alone, going concern, and that the equity value could drop to zero, if there is a shock to the value of operating assets, given the debt load. There is talk, however, that Tesla could become an acquisition target, to an automobile company or a tech company (see this rumor about Apple being interested in 2014). While there are some entanglements (such as the one with Panasonic in the battery factories) that will have to be worked out, there have generally been two impediments on this path. One is that Tesla has been an expensive target, especially when its market capitalization exceeded $50 billion. That will become less of a barrier, as the stock price drops, and at a market cap of less than $15 billion, it could be much more affordable. The other is a bigger and more intractable problem. With Elon Musk as part of the package, Tesla has a poison pill that few companies will want to imbibe, and it is likely that the relationship will have to be severed or at least significantly weakened for an acquisition to occur. I remain skeptical on the odds of an acquisition, precisely because I don't see Musk going quietly into the night, but adding an acquisition floor at a $15 billion value for equity (about $60/share) increases the simulated value for the stock by about $10/share.

3. The ARK Tesla Pricing
It is not my role to be an arbiter of other people's valuations, and I generally avoid commenting on them unless they are in the public domain, as was the case with the Tesla/Solar City fairness opinions, or seek public comment. I will make an exception with the ARK "valuation" of Tesla, partly because they are among the stock's strongest boosters and partly because they put their model up for public comments, for which I commend them. In summary, here are the ARK numbers:
Download ARK pricing from Github

  1. This is a pricing, not a valuation: I know that this will strike some as nitpicking but what ARK has produced is a forward pricing for Tesla, not a valuation. An intrinsic valuation requires forecasting cash flows over time, after taxes and reinvestment, and then discounting those cash flows back at a rate that reflects the risk in the investment. A pricing usually involves picking a metric (revenues, earnings, EBITDA), picking a forecast year for the metric and applying a multiple based upon what other companies in the peer group trade at. ARK's basic model forecasts revenues, earnings and other metrics in 2023, and applies a multiple to estimated EBITDAR&D in 2023, making it a forward pricing.
  2. The ARK bear is bullish:  The ARK bear case requires that Tesla will sell 1.7 million cars in 2023, at an average price of $50,000/car and generate an operating margin of 6.1% on those revenues. Each of these assumptions is plausible, and the combination is possible, though to call a seven fold increase in revenues over five years, with a concurrent improvement to industry average profitability, a bear case seems to be stretching the definition of bear.
  3. The weakest link: The model's weakest link is on cash flows, since to sell 1.7 million cars, you have to make them first, and Tesla's production capacity, even if you count the China plant as functional and about the same capacity as the Fremont plant, brings you only about half way to the goal. It will be magical, if adding another $3.7 billion to net PP&E (as ARK seems to be assuming) and $1.2 billion to working capital will allow you to increase revenues by $63.5 billion, but it gets even more stretched, when you assume that Tesla also pays off $14 billion in debt (as ARK seems to) over the five years. In sum, the bear case will require at the very least $25 to $30 billion in cash flows, even with ARK's own assumptions, over the next five years, and since the operating cash flows at the company are still a trickle, this will require equity issuances in massive proportions fairly soon. ARK does allow for an equity capital raise of $10.6 billion which strikes me as too little to fill the gap, but in the absence of a balance sheet or statements of cash flows, I may be missing something (and it has to be very big).
  4. Share count issue: Even for the equity capital raise of $10.6 billion, ARK reduces the impact on share count by assuming a stock price of $360/share (market cap will be $70 billion) at the time of the raise. Since this capital will have to be raised soon, there is an element of wishful thinking here, i.e., that stock prices will double in short order and the capital raise will follow. In addition, if stock prices do climb, as ARK assumes, there will there is an overhang of 20 million options that have been granted to Musk by the board of directors that will become actual shares. In short, for the ARK bear case to unfold, the share count will have to double over the next five years.
  5. There is a time value question: Applying a multiple to EBITDAR&D in 2023 gives you a value in 2023, and to make it comparable to today's stock price, you will have to discount it back to today, at a risk adjusted rate. In fact, if you bring in the probability of failure embedded in Tesla bonds, there will an additional discounting on value.

Even if you take the ARK bear case as realistic, with Tesla projected to sell 1.7 million cars in 2023 and earn operating margins close to the auto sector, the pricing per share that you get will be closer to $250/share, with a more realistic share count and time value adjustments, not the $560 that you see on the ARK spreadsheet. As for the bull case, I will leave it untouched, since it strikes me as more fairy tale than valuation, a world where there will be 7.2 autonomous cars on the road in 2023, with Tesla controlling a 70% market share, and generating $52 billion in annual cash flows. I am willing to accept the argument that Tesla is closer to mastering the autonomous car technology than its competitors, but I see a business that is further in the future than 2023, less dominated by Tesla and much less profitable than ARK is assuming it to be. In short, right now, it is more option than conventional going concern value, and even if I believed it, I would make more money selling short on Uber and Lyft, than buying Tesla.

Bottom Line
I did my first valuation of Tesla in 2013, and undershot the mark, partly because I saw its potential market as luxury cars (smaller), and partly because I under estimated how much it would be able to extract in production from the Fremont plant. Over time, I have compensated for both mistakes, giving Tesla access to a bigger (albeit, still upscale) market and more growth, while reinvesting less than the typical auto company. In spite of these adjustments, I have consistently come up with valuations well below the price, finding the stock to be valued at about half its price only a year ago. This year marks a turning point, as I find Tesla to be under valued, albeit by only a small fraction. Even in the midst of my most negative posts on Tesla, I confessed that I like the company (though not  Elon Musk's antics as CEO and financial choices) and that I would one day own the stock. That day may be here, as I put in a limit buy order at $180/share, knowing fully well that, if I do end up as a shareholder, this company will test my patience and sanity. (Update: My limit buy just executed. As a shareholder my risks would be much lower, if Musk was banned from tweeting...) 

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Spreadsheet links